Truth is the only thing that really matters 评论 《Being Logical》

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  一段话简介: 
  在本书短短的160页纸中,作者围绕如何让思维变得有逻辑性,一针见血地点明了阻碍逻辑思考的主要问题以及问题原因,并浅显易懂地举之以实例,是一本让人喜闻乐见的逻辑学入门书本。 
  文章句子精练,用词得当,对于想提高英文水平者,尝试背诵文中的段落是个绝好的办法。 
   
  读一本书就好比看一部电影,看完电影的人对剧情情有独钟,迫不及待想要把里头经典片段分享给大家,实则这片段如果没有外人感兴趣的明星、或者鲜明漂亮的主题背景、或者独立的完整故事,在外人看来是一点不吸引人的。 
   
  读完整本时感慨万千,摘下自认为具有深邃内涵的最后一段并认为其他人也会感同身受,实则这最后一段也只有在读完前边所有铺垫的章节后才能给予人丰满的情感或合理的结论。 
   
  最好的办法也许是让人看预告片或写一篇书本简介吧。毕竟即便是真理,对于大众来说也有接受或不接受的自由,期间还要给予足够的证据和浅显易懂的解释,更何况是这些充斥读者感情因素的读后感捏。 
   
  =======so华丽丽的分割线:适用于读过本书的人========== 
  这段话为本书最后一张最后一节,本应写在笔记里,但是实在可作为本书的核心思想:追逐真理为最终目的。 
   
  “Some audiences have a refined capacity for accepting only what they want to hear. Others have a need for easy answers. It is cynical to exploit these weaknesses. Don’t tell an audience what they want to hear; tell them what is true. Don’t tell them something is certain if it is not. If the reality is black, say black. If the reality is white, say white. If the reality is gray, say gray. The audience may not immediately appreciate your candor, but the hope is that in the long run it will come to see that the truth is the only thing that really matters.” 
  






Tag:豆瓣 书评

[zz]期末看不进去书的原因+解决方案

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人人网里见到的一篇分析不错的文章,已经有四年历史了,在理的东西果然不论什么时候翻出来都在理,如今读后依然觉得很适用。特别是SAD症状的分析和解决方案,可以供将来漫长的大冬天参考。

本文转载自 http://blog.renren.com/blog/263024854/435424223   

原题为 期末看不进去书的原因+解决方案 。但我以为这些普适的理论也同样适用于科研、生活等其他任何方面。以下为正文。

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原因:
一 SAD季节性情绪失调
二 心理逃避策略
三 解释形态
四 短期记忆饱和

 

 

原因一 SAD 季节性情绪失调
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD)

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD), also known as winter depression or winter blues, is a mood disorder in which people who have normal mental health throughout most of the year experience depressive symptoms in the winter or, less frequently, in the summer, spring or autumn, repeatedly, year after year. In the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV), SAD is not a unique mood disorder, but is “a specifier of major depression”.

The US National Library of Medicine notes that “some people experience a serious mood change when the seasons change. They may sleep too much, have little energy, and crave sweets and starchy foods. They may also feel depressed. Though symptoms can be severe, they usually clear up.” The condition in the summer is often referred to as Reverse Seasonal Affective Disorder, and can also include heightened anxietyIt has been estimated that 1.5-9% of adults in the US experience SAD.

There are many different treatments for classic (winter-based) seasonal affective disorder, including light therapy with sunlight or bright lights, antidepressant medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy, ionized-air administration, and carefully timed supplementation of the hormone melatonin.

情绪特征:忧郁、犯困、没精神、浑身无力

 

冇意思,插图比较烂,我大一PSY课本,16.8 Seasonal affective disorder and day length
(A 左) Percentage of patients with seasonal affective disorder who report being depressed in any given month. (B右) Mean minutes of daylight per month. (Rosenthal et al., 1984)

Two possible reasons:

1. sleeping-waking cycle
2. pineal gland’s secretion of the hormone melatonin (松果腺大爷分泌的松果体素) 

据 我粗略调查在冬季UofT大家平均起床时间是9:30(甚者11:00)。多伦多纬度43*40’,属于高纬度地区。大家考试FALL FINAL期间的日落是16:45,平均受光时间6.25小时(11点起的就剩4.75小时让你鬼见光)。你一整天能见光的时间也就是那么可怜的6小时, 你能HIGH起来么。哥说:“我在图书馆学到24点,光照12+小时!” 我说那不得劲,有效感光必须是全日光谱任何一个波段的全面光照,人造光光谱没有自然日光光谱广。另外,好消息,你们学校为了保证你们皮肤光洁给图书馆落地 窗玻璃镀上过滤膜,唯一能合成你求之若渴的维生素D的紫外线也给滤掉了!曝光时间少了40%,松果腺分泌的松果体素被增加了一大半,所以你就郁闷了。


解决方案

1、在日光较少的季节,有意识地抓住接触日光的机会。注意:目的不是“晒太阳”,而是通过视网膜进行感光,切勿对着太阳傻看微笑,漫反射日光足够了。
2、曝光疗法。每次半小时,每天一到两次,用一盏灯从正面(或偏侧面)照向自己的面部。
3、在阳光少的日子里,尽量模拟晴天的生活,多外出。
4、争取换一个能看到室外的办公地点。
5、做“反季节”的事,如室内慢跑游泳壁球羽毛球篮球,多做让自己出汗活动。北极圈国家大部分都打冰球估计也是一种应对方式。
6、补充维生素D族。
 

 

 

原因二 心理逃避策略
Avoidance strategy/Avoidance response 

 

An avoidance response is a form of escape behavior present in animals in which the subject evades an aversive event. This can be due to anxiety or a frightening situation.

Avoidance responses are used in animal training and are the commonly expected response to behavioural modification using negative reinforcement. Common examples of avoidance responses in animal training are:

  • a horse submits to the bit (slowing or stopping) in order to avoid the pressure or pain that the bit causes in its mouth if it is jerked back.
  • a dog learns to walk quietly at a handler’s side in order to avoid being choked by its leash.

 

简 而言之,逃避的目的是避免冲突的发生。但实际情况是冲突迟早一定会发生,逃避的功效仅仅是推迟冲突发生时带来的创伤。比如说隔壁家张大爷的小孩发烧要打 针,孩子死活都不愿意去,又哭又闹。最后没办法还被张大爷生生扛到社区诊所受屁屁打针。这孩子用的逃避策略和上述动物所用的策略本质是一样的,即:推迟冲 突发生时候带来的创伤。那么由于考试时间的逼近,直面应付考试而赶集式的复习而带来的精神压力就是冲突所带来的创伤。于是学生的逃避策略就是“干脆先放松 一下” ,结果就是“压抽屉策略”–不看不想。这样的结果只能是潜意识和显意识对抗。最后到考试逼近面前情况严重到状态彻底崩溃。这就是你们大家常见的MSN校内签名的凌晨2点突然爆发式的简短咒骂和发泄语句的来源。

 

解决方案

1. 避免最后突击的情况发生,提前做好任务分割和计划。(这基本上跟没说一样)
2. 和团队一起协作。团队的动态气氛可以有效调动你的积极性,压力也因为在此情况中不只你一个人而被稀释。
3. 遇到压力产生的时候,马上转换活动状态。推荐是去运动。因为聊天只能加重压力的恐惧感,而运动可以有效减压,并且提高睡眠质量,睡好白天精神好效率高,效率高状态就好。

 

 

原因三 解释形态
Global/Permanet explanatory style

Explanatory style is a psychological attribute that indicates how people explain to themselves why they experience a particular event, either positive or negative. Psychologists have identified three components in explanatory style:

  • Personal. People experiencing events may see themselves as the cause; that is, they have internalised the cause for the event. Example: “I always forget to make that turn” (internal) as opposed to “That turn can sure sneak up on you” (external).
    • This involves how one explains where the cause of an event arises.
  • Permanent. People may see the situation as unchangeable, e.g., “I always lose my keys” or “I never forget a face”.
    • This involves how one explains the extent of the cause.
  • Pervasive. People may see the situation as affecting all aspects of life, e.g., “I can’t do anything right” or “Everything I touch seems to turn to gold”.
    • This involves how one explains the extent of the effects.

People who generally tend to blame themselves for negative events, believe that such events will continue indefinitely, and let such events affect many aspects of their lives display what is called a pessimistic explanatory style. Conversely, people who generally tend to blame others for negative events, believe that such events will end soon, and do not let such events affect too many aspects of their lives display what is called an optimistic explanatory style.

Some research has linked a pessimistic explanatory style to depression[1] and physical illness.[2] The concept of explanatory style encompasses a wide range of possible responses to both positive and negative occurrences, rather than a black-white difference between optimism and pessimism. Also, an individual does not necessarily show a uniform explanatory style in all aspects of life, but may exhibit varying responses to different types of events.



上 面这张图,你属于那种类型?说白了就是说你没时间准备考试的时候,干脆就不念了,因为这样可以给你自己一个交代(解释类型):不是因为我太笨(智力限制, 低IQ则意味着你们高等学府的大学生们前途彻底完蛋),是因为我没花时间读书(解释类型:内部。最左分支下属的乐观类型),下次我提前好好努力就可以考高 分(主观解决)。相对有人的解释类型是恒定型,要是再加上是悲观型,那就惨了,这种人最容易陷入绝望。不少人选择的解释类型是第一组Personal,在 此动机的阴影下,潜意识开始动员你的意识回避积极的全力以赴来挽救这临阵抱佛脚的残局,从而换取一个合法合理合情的借口(爷没努力而已,下次补上~)。但 你我都知道这只是借口,因此。。。

解决方案

1. 明白一件事情:如果(其实不是如果,期末考是绝对要发生的事件)要来的冲突是不可避免的,那么你先要做的事情是解决潜意识的抵抗。让自己全面认识冲突是迟早的事情,现在启动还有更大的成功机率。
2. 避免潜意识遭受压力:不让逼近的冲突所能引起的恐慌影响正常运转。说白了就是不过多地挖掘恐惧所带来的压力。经典的错误办法是:吃零食,酗酒等,经典的正确办法是:睡觉,生理发泄(体育啦),营养。
3. 认识自我暗示:“这件事情是我亲手造成的,现在我也有能力把它扳回来。” 不断的自我暗示其实就是驾驭你潜意识的诀窍。
以 上三条全部都是cognitive-behavioral 认知纠正型解决方案,说白了就是你能说服你自己BACK TO WORK即可。 不断用因为每个细微成功而给自己正面鼓励(positive reinforcement),潜意识就乖乖招了,认同临阵抱佛脚还是一个有戏可唱的项目。如果此时潜意识参与了动员,充分合作,你的学习效率就会提高。 如此如果上了良性循环的正轨,这就叫士气了,俗语“咸鱼翻身”。这就是史上著名案例“项羽破釜沉舟背水一战”的心理支柱。问题是这不甚容易,如果此时要是潜意识把你掰过去了,你就容易彻底垮台。经典范例:

小明呢,就明天要考试窝,但晚上却在看电视。
小明妈妈就担心地问:书都看完了吗?明天要考试啊。
小明就爽快地回答:妈,我看完了。
小明妈妈就很开心的赞扬小明:乖,那明天你一定考得很好呢。
小明哭着说:妈,我是说,‘妈,我看,完了’。 

 

原因四 暂时性短期记忆饱和
Transient working memory overflow

Short-term memory (sometimes referred to as “primary memory” or “active memory”) refers to the capacity for holding a small amount of information in mind in an active, readily available state for a short period of time. The duration of short-term memory (when rehearsal or active maintenance is prevented) is believed to be in the order of seconds. Estimates of short-term memory capacity limits vary from about 4 to about 9 items, depending upon the experimental design used to estimate capacity. A commonly-cited capacity is 7±2 elements. In contrast,long-term memory indefinitely stores a seemingly unlimited amount of information.

Short-term memory should be distinguished from working memory which refers to structures and processes used for temporarily storing and manipulating information (see more details below).

你有没有学到天昏地暗,不知道自己是人是鬼,走出图书馆或者房门看什么都眼神呆滞面无表情过?恭喜,你脑子现在是满的(谁叫你临阵抱佛脚,活该)。基本上学 过心理的都可以理解短期记忆(Working Memory: WM) vs. 长期记忆(Long Term Memory: LTM)吧。短期记忆就是你脑子的内存条(REM),一段时间内的容量是有限的。瞬时间塞入大量的信息是不可能马上转成(internalize)长期记 忆的(长期记忆区就是你身体的硬盘HDD)。也就是某一个时刻,当你在图书馆实在觉得看不进去的时候,极有可能就是你的短期记忆饱和了。这也就是为什么当你一阵填鸭式的狂读完了以后会心不在焉犹如幽鬼—-你对新信息已经没有瞬时接受能力了。你不可能去电脑一条街买两条内存插进脑子(增加WM容量),或者用喝脑白金来加速脑细胞交流电的速度(加快WM->LTM的速率)。合理有效有可行性的做法是。。。